Phrases and clauses of reason – Cụm từ & mệnh đề chỉ nguyên nhân – P1 – Bộ chuyên đề ôn HSG, TN THPT QG cao cấp

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CHUYÊN ĐỀ IV. PHRASES VS. CLAUSES

CHUYÊN ĐỀ VỀ CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ

BÀI 6. PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF REASON

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CỤM TỪ & MỆNH ĐỀ CHỈ NGUYÊN NHÂN

I.Phrase of reason: Thông thường, để diễn đạt nguyên nhân qua một cụm từ ta dùng mẫu câu

                                                Because of – N/ N phrase, S – V

Hay S – V because of – N/ N phrase

e.g.      Because of the heavy rain, we couldn’t go out to get food.

phrase

The students arrived late because of the traffic jam.

phrase

Note: Trong một số trường hợp ta có thể coi các cụm từ sau như cụm từ chỉ nguyên nhân:

  • “Thanks to – N/ N phrase”: Nhờ vào một yếu tố ngoại cảnh tích cực

e.g.      Thanks to the development of technology, communication has been made easier.

We got good crops thanks to the new farming technique.

  • “due to – N/ N phrase”: Bởi một yếu tố chủ quan tiêu cực

e.g.      Their trip turned out to be disastrous due to their bad plan.

Due to his carelessness, he was badly-injured.

  • “Owing to – N/ N phrase”: Do bởi một yếu tố ngoại cảnh tiêu cực e.g. Owing to the heavy traffic, he was late for the meeting.

We had to evacuate owing to the terrible flood.

  • Clause of reason: Thông thường, để diễn đạt nguyên nhân qua một mệnh đề ta dùng mẫu câu : Because S – V, S – V

Hay S – V because S – V

e.g.   Because it rained heavily, we couldn’t go out to get food.
clause

The students arrived late because the traffic was heavy.

clause

Because he got stuck in the traffic jam, he was late for the meeting.

We had to evacuate because the area was badly flooded.

Their trip turned out to be disastrous because they had not carefully planned.

Because he was careless, he was badly-injured.

NOTE: Ngoài việc sử dụng cấu trúc câu “Because S V, S V” như trình bày ở trên, ta còn dùng các liên từ “since” hay “as” với ý nghĩa tương tự. Cụ thể như sau:

a.Since: dùng chỉ lí do cho các lự chọn mang tính thay thế e,g, Since he had no money with him, he had to walk home.

They had to make use of their old car since they couldn’t afford a new one.

b.As: dùng chỉ lí do cho các lự chọn mang tính thực tế khách quan:

e.g.      As he hadn’t prepared well for the test, he had bad results.

They had to shelter as they had no rain coat when it suddenly rained.

  • Causative verbs: Một số động từ trong ác cấu trúc gây nguyên nhân. Các động từ này được sử dụng để chỉ ra một người gây cho người thứ 2 làm một việc mà người thứ nhất muốn, thậm chí mang tính cưỡng ép.
  • have: Cấu trúc câu với causative verb “have” như sau:

S – have – somebody – V (bare infinitive)

Hay S – have – something – past participle

e.g.      Mary had John wash the car.

I have my bag carried by my friend.

Mary had the car washed by John.

I have my friend carry my bag

  • get: Cấu trúc câu với causative verb “get” như sau:

S – get – somebody – to V

      Hay S – get – something – past participle

e.g.      Mary got John to wash the car.

I get my bag carried by my friend.

Mary got the car washed by John.

I have my friend to carry my bag.

  • make: Cấu trúc câu với causative verb “get” như sau:

      S – make– somebody –V (bare infinitive)

= S – force – somebody – to V

e.g.      Mary made John wash the car.

Mary forced John to wash the car.

He makes the boy carry his bag.

He forces the boy to carry his bag.

  • want/ like: Cấu trúc câu với causative verb “want/ like” như sau:

S – want – somebody – to V

S – like – somebody – to V

S – would like – somebody – to V

e.g.    I want you to post the letters right now.

She liked me to say so.

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Phrases and clauses of reason – Cụm từ & mệnh đề chỉ nguyên nhân – P2

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